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Ancient Greek civilization, one of the largest civilizations of the ancient world, became the basis for the emergence of European civilization and had a huge impact on the development of the modern world. In Ancient Greece, democracy and fundamentals of science originated, it is the birthplace of Western philosophy, the Olympic Games, the basic principles of architecture, sculpture, poetry, art of theatre, etc.

On the shores of the Mediterranean inhabited by about 20 people, each of which had an attempt to create their own civilization.

The Early stage of the history of Ancient Greece is called the Cretan-Micken, or Aegean: The Bronze Age civilizations. In the III-II millennia B.C. The first states in the Aegean Sea basin-the island of Crete and the Peloponnese Peninsula-emerge. From the middle of The II millennium BC the center of the Greek civilization became Mycenae inhabited by the Greeks-Achaeans. The City was located 90 km south-west of Athens. It was surrounded by powerful defensive walls, folded from huge, roughly otesenno stone blocks. The Main Lion's gate was decorated with a triangular stele with a relief image of two lions. The City is named after a woman named Mikena, the heroine, sung by Homer.

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Mycenaean led the Achaians in the Trojan war. In Homer's poem "Iliad" The Story of Agamemnon, The mighty king Miken, who had a brother Menelay who married Elena the Beautiful from Sparta, was told. Paris, the son of King Troy Priama, kidnapped Elena, causing Agamemnon to declare war on the Trojans. During the war with Troy Akheysy, after a long and unsuccessful siege, resorted to cunning: they built a huge wooden horse, left it at the walls of Troy, and they pretended to sail from the shore. The Horse was offering to the goddess Athena. On the side of the horse was written "This Gift is brought by the Athenian Warrior departing Danaytsy." The Trojans dragged the horse into the city. At Night, the Greeks, hiding inside the horse, came out of it, interrupted the guards, opened the city gate and let the soldiers who returned on ships. So the legendary Troy fell.

The Disappearance of the Miken culture in the XII century BC is associated with the invasion from the north of the Balkan peninsula of the Dorian tribes. The Mycenas were discovered by the German archaeologist Heinrich Schlieman, digging in search of Troy. Schliiman began the excavations of Mycenaens in 1876 and found the golden Tomb of the Mycenas, the tomb of Atrei, which is a circle of underground structures with dome vaults.


The Next period of history of Ancient Greece from XI to IV centuries. BC is called a Polyum. In This period policies-sovereign cities-states began to be formed. The largest Polisami were Sparta and Athens. Sparta is called a paramilitary state, where men were born to become warriors, and women to give birth to new Spartans. It was one of the most powerful states in Ancient Greece.

The Secret of invincibility of the Spartans consisted in strict upbringing and trainings of the young generation. Stamina was instilled from the first days of the child's life. As the boys grew up, they were raised in increasingly harsh conditions. From The age of twelve young people walked almost without clothes, barefoot and with a bare head. They slept without a blanket, on a hay, straw, on reeds or on Kamyshah. The Inmates were beaten with sticks and whips, to conceal their pain and to forget about pity. Severe education and living conditions, focused on endurance, and today called Spartan.

Boys up to the age of seven were raised at home, and then the state was responsible for their education. The training program included only those subjects that contributed to the development of physical skills, moral endurance, fortitude, courage, strength of spirit-the qualities necessary for the future warrior. The Children were taught music and literature a little, but the main thing was physical and military training.

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