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In the beginning of XX century in archaeological science there was a stable opinion that the motherland of producing economy, urban culture, writing, in general civilization, is the Middle East. This area, by the aptly defined English archaeologist James Bresteda, was named "Fertile Crescent". Hence the achievements of culture spread throughout the Old world, west and east. However, new studies have made serious corrections to this theory.

The First finds of this kind have been made already in 20-ies. XX century. Indian archaeologists Sahni and Banerji discovered a civilization on the banks of the Indus, which existed simultaneously with the Egyptian civilization of the era of the first pharaohs and Mesopotamia of the Sumerian era in the III-II millennia B.C. (the three most ancient civilizations of the world). Before the eyes of scientists there was a bright culture with magnificent cities, developed crafts and trade, a peculiar art. First archeologists dug out the largest urban centers of this civilization-Harppu and Mohenjo-Daro. By name of the first it and has got a name-a Harappskaya civilization. Later found many other settlements. Now They know about a thousand. They covered the entire Indus valley and its tributaries, as if necklace covering the northeast coast of the Arabian Sea in the territory of present India and Pakistan.

The Culture of ancient cities, large and small, was so bright and peculiar that the researchers had no doubt: this country was not the outskirts of the Fertile Crescent of the world, but an independent hotbed of civilization, today the forgotten world of cities. There is no mention Of them in the written sources, and only the earth has preserved traces of their former greatness.

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Another Mystery of ancient Indian civilization is its origin. Scientists continue to argue whether it had local roots or was brought from outside, from the neighboring Mezhrechie (Mesopotamia), with which was conducted intensive trade.

The Majority of archaeologists believe that proto-Indian civilization has grown on the basis of local early-agricultural crops that existed in the Indus basin and the neighboring area of Northern Baluchistan. Archaeological discoveries reinforce their point of view. In the foothills nearest to the Indus Valley hundreds of settlements of ancient farmers of VI-IV millennia B.C. were discovered.

This transitional zone between the Baluchistan Mountains and the Indo-Gangland Plain provided the first farmers with everything they needed. The Climate favored the cultivation of plants for a long warm summer. Mountain streams gave water for a crop watering and in case of necessity could be blocked by dams for detention of fertile river silt and regulation of irrigation of fields. Here grew wild ancestors of wheat and barley, roamed herds of wild buffalo and goats. Flint Deposits provided raw materials for the production of tools. Convenient position opened opportunities for trade contacts with Central Asia and Iran in the west and Valley Indus in the east. This area as no other suited for the origin of agricultural economy.

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