Methods of gold mining
There is not a large number of methods to extract gold, but only two major: first-washing sand from the river and the second-mining gold ore from the mines, which contains small blotches of yellow metal. Gold ore from a precious metal recovered by the amalgamation process, chlorination and cyanide process.
According to statistics, the average content of gold in the lithosphere is about 4.3 × 10-7% by weight. Man produces the precious metal for a long time and every time make sure that it is not so simple.
During the existence of man, they were produced huge amounts of gold roughly about 168.9 thousand tons, this figure is valid until 2012. From all this metal 50% went for the production of jewelry, 12% was used for industrial and technical purposes, and the remaining 38% is stored in banks.
If you collect all the gold mined person and make it a cube with an edge, it would have a thickness of 20 meters and the height would be a five-story building. All ore and all the sand from which it was produced so much gold in one place, would form a mountain, the height of which would be more than 2.5 km.
Traditional methods of production
The main traditional methods of gold mining are fairly simple and incredibly tenacious until now. With their help, people mined gold and one hundred and two hundred years ago and in our modern time production techniques have not changed. What has changed is that people used to perform almost all the work by hand, but nowadays many machines operate.
All lovers of gold necessarily interested in the question where to look this coveted metal. Try in this article to deal with this complex issue.
It is well known that one of the main sources of gold mining are gold-bearing river. After heavy winter or summer rains very often formed floods that washed away in the various rivers and streams rock that is probably auriferous.
Boiling water extracts the fine particles of the precious metal, which is under the influence of gravity settles on the bottom of the river and experienced gold miner with a wooden tray can pan for gold.
However, after two or three weeks a thin layer of river sand, which were gold particles can be covered with a layer of silt or overgrown with algae, and then extraction of the gold particles becomes more difficult.
Therefore, when it is hot summer, it’s time for the miners and prospectors. They understand that you can not lose time and start rather laborious process.
Their main and the main objective is to get as much as possible and rinse with more rocks from the river. Miners work almost around the clock, until there is strength. They try, but the results may not always please them.
Initial aim is to pan gold miners bag or better two golden sand, which as the most difficult part of the breed, settle to the bottom of the tray. This work requires a huge effort, as have to work in very cold mountain water and the only thing that warms, so the expectation of production.
On the basis of communication with several people – gold miners, it became clear that the need to look for the golden sand of the river in places where there are no strong currents, where the river has a wide track, and it would be nice to at this point even some river flowed.
It is desirable that the area where the river flows, the mountain was as more likely that the water flowing down the mountain, gold-bearing rock, bring small particles of the precious metal.
I also learned that the river rock on its content of gold is determined by certain signs and one of them – is the presence of quartz particles.
Modern technology of gold mining
Nowadays, technology has advanced far forward. Mining of gold made a heap leaching process. This technology allows to extract metal from low-grade ores, from small fields, and develop balance ores.
For the introduction of heap leaching technology is enough just one year, that is for private gold miner is quite acceptable, and it is a good investment. A year later, you can hold in your hands the gold bars.
And the cost will be less per kilogram of gold produced than traditional factory method.
In the beginning, it is necessary to prepare the ore material, it is crushed into smaller fractions by the special mills, then skip the rock through the sieve and to conduct palletizing, in order not to agglomerate and Ore not collected in coarse fractions.
The next step is the formation of stacks of ore, ore cyanide leaching solution. This process is very poisonous.
Extract from the ore by sorption of heavy metals by ion exchange resin or activated charcoal. There is another method, which is carried out using metallic zinc by cementation.
The next stage of preparation of the gold deposits on the cathode or zinc precipitation, which contain gold. All this occurs in a plating bath.
gold industry has shown good results in the Ural, in spite of the serious economic crisis. All 24 gold mining enterprises of the Ural is not affected by the crisis, as opposed to other areas, as gold remained highly liquid commodity and problems with its sales do not arise.
This good result was achieved thanks to the new technologies of gold production and higher prices for the precious metal.
However, modern technology of gold mining, virtually eliminating manual labor, shovels and wheelbarrows, has its drawbacks. These include the huge cost of electrical energy.
For example, to produce a kilo of gold on deposit , consumed 130,000 kWh of electricity. With the constant increase in electricity tariffs, each year has steadily reduced the profitability of gold mining.
Despite these costs, the year comes about almost a kilogram of precious metal per employee, which is a much larger figure than for the same old technologies on the same fields.
Many years have passed since man began to dig for gold and mostly technology in principle has not changed. Just manual labor was replaced, in some cases, to supplement the work of machines.
Washing gold ore in a wooden tray now is not relevant for large miners, but the principle remains the same technology, only changed the size of the tray, change the number of trays, they became much with successive shallow nets.
The most commonly used for cleaning river rock is a dredge. This is a huge, noisy machine that is designed to extract gold from river rocks. Thundering like a dragon, this machine makes loud noises.
Dredge has a long tail and neck, which are located inside the transporters. Dredge head, pubescent in the water, it swallows wet river rock that enters the body of the dragon, there is a breed of people using sieved and tail out the spent waste.
Draga certainly an effective way to gold mining, however, as it is very harmful environmental riverbanks, as after dredge riverbeds look terrible. Refuse heaps, solid pit dug on the river look like after the bombing.
This technology is based on gold during grinding auriferous rock. After loading shovels huge rocks on the dump trucks and tractors, driven by its special mills that are cascaded, inside a huge rotating drum. They crushed rock big iron balls.
Then fed into centrifuges, where the heaviest fraction breed brings to the region. By repeatedly scroll increases the content of heavy metal particles. Gold is often contained in the pyrite particles. Pyrite is a companion mineral. Together with gold, they are much harder than the rest of the rock. Previously, people are constantly confused with pyrite glitter golden glow of this precious metal.
Then, the resulting composition of fine gold-bearing rock is washed several times, which are selected from small grains of gold, as the heavy fractions settle to the bottom.
Search for gold metal detector
A large number of people believe that because of the very low percentage of gold content in the ore is already fulfilled, it makes no sense. After all, to get one gram of gold will have to shovel a huge amount of material.
The average content of gold in the earth’s crust is only about 5 milligrams per ton. If you think so, then the production of the yellow metal by any method will never be profitable: no prospecting or industrial.
However, in the earth’s crust meet local, gold-rich places, they are called fields. They are found by geologists who have the appropriate education. In such gold deposits of the precious metal is several orders higher.
More on the fields themselves are such sites, which are much more enriched in metal ore are called jacks and poles. The gold content in such areas could reach more than one kilogram per ton. The weight ratio of the gold to the residual effect of the revised estimates breed.
How to find plots of land rich in gold? The answer is! In our modern times invented and widely used metal detectors.
With their help, you can dramatically increase the speed and efficiency of the search of the precious metal. If you find something gold metal detector, it is necessary to examine more carefully this place, try to rinse the rock in this place. As practice shows, a piece of gold can not be all alone, are usually not far from him and other instances.
Using metal detectors gold began to look abroad, about 40 years ago, since ancient times, there were quite sensitive metal detectors that are capable of finding gold nuggets in small sizes.
Workers Research Institute of Geology tested a huge number of models of metal detectors, they were tested in different environments, on land and in water. As a result of the tests it was shown that the metal detectors are ideal for finding nuggets in various conditions.
During the studies, which were conducted in theregion, was found more than a hundred nuggets that weighed more than a kilogram.
On the surface of the earth to find gold nuggets is very difficult, it occurs mostly in the movies. They are more common on the surface of the dumps which remain after execution of major industrial fields.
Try to figure out where to look for nuggets. Prospective sites for the presence of gold are of different types and, therefore, they need to look in different places. The most reliable and proven option to search in areas where previously conducted or are currently under gold mining. Places where gold had never mined, considered quite hopeless.
Need to consider the fact that gold before you came someone has sought and this is a huge plus. Professional experts geologists viewed all streams, caves and mountains. They worked many months in large groups, and if anything could not find, you also will find that does not.
There are, of course, exceptions. Geologists are not interested in small and remote areas, they are interested in larger areas for the gold mining industry. In geological reports, you can find reliable information on small areas, sometimes of gold mining can tell the old-timers, but is much more reliable reports of geologists, however, very difficult to get them.
In gold mining areas great place to find gold nuggets – this small mountain streams. Gold in them settles from the slopes. Easy rock washed with water, and the heavy gold sags through the pebbles and sand accumulates and forms placers. Choose places to find where the rock on which lies directly placer, coming close to the surface.
Such places in mountain rivers and streams occur quite often. Their surface was once the bottom of the creek, but later washed himself a new stream of the deepest channel, and old former appeared on the bottom surface.
If this surface has a large number of cracks, the gold probably settled in them. Whole area must carefully examine the detector. Average survey also accessible surface adjacent to the old course, even at the height of 10-25 meters.