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Apart from traveling who make scientific expeditions, there are expeditions, which have quite different objectives. First of all, it’s treasure. To understand this, let us return to the history of navigation.
It is the thirst for gold often contributed to significant geographic discoveries. Gold was the goal of the Portuguese, who explored the African coast and India; for him, the Spaniards conquered the Atlantic Ocean, in other words, gold has been the first and foremost goal of the white colonialists. And the white man has made considerable progress. When Columbus began his first expedition, according to some reports, the total weight of gold in Europe was about 90 tons. But as a result of the looting of Peru and Mexico alone, gold stocks in Europe for some 100 years more than 8 times!
However, not all the looted gold sent to their destinations. A great number of treasures held in the holds of ships that were sunk at various times in the seas and oceans. The maritime Maw, as a huge Museum, holds the unique exhibits of days gone by, after that you can shed some light on the mysteries of history.
Scientists estimated that in the last 2000 years to 500 ships each year become victims of the disaster. Accordingly, on the seabed found his peace at least a million ships of different epochs and peoples. There are areas of the oceans, where the bottom literally strewn with sunken ships. Such places are called the “graveyard of ships”. They emerged exactly where unfavourable to sailors constantly occur phenomena such as fog, Meli, dangerous reefs and severe storms.
Open a map and look at the English channel between Britain and France. He and Strait of Pas-de-Calais connect the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Strait, one of the most navigable sites on the planet, however, all year long in thick fog. At the bottom of the Straits lie tens if not hundreds of thousands of vessels to form a unique museum that holds of all ages and types, ranging from ancient Roman galleys and ending with modern powerful ships.
A terrible glory of this “ship of souls” has an awesome stranded Goodwin is located at 10 km from the mouth of the Thames. A familiar name has, isn’t it? A. Volkov, while writing her tales, “borrowed” by the card name fairy-tale hero.
Just as dangerous, and the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, the area near the Scilly Islands, which are surrounded by a huge number of shoals and submerged rocks. This place is really the “graveyard of ships”, the exact number of dead is not known, the courts there are about 1250. The worst is known as seven stones reef, where in March 1967 he crashed a huge tanker “Terry Canyon”.
In addition to the large enclosure around the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, many courts have found the last shelter at the bottom of the turbulent and unpredictable of the Bay of Biscay.
Danger lurking for mariners and coastal waters of the peninsula Jutland in Denmark. In these parts often raging storms, leading to the collapse of many ships.
But the most impressive cemeteries of sunken ships are found in the “triangle of treasure”, mainly in the areas of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Just off the coast of Mexico, according to the historical chronicles, in the years from 1521 to 1830 ‘s. shipwrecked thousands of ships carrying huge wealth. Huge graveyard of ships were off the coast of Florida, and eastward from the floor of the island, Nova Scotia, that is known for its dense fog, hazardous shoals and reefs. We remind that the cruel waters at a distance of about 900 km to the southeast of the island of Newfoundland, in April 1912, due to collision with an iceberg sank the infamous Titanic.
The sinking of the Titanic has become one of the largest in the history of maritime accidents, which resulted in the deaths of more than 1500 people. According to his contemporaries, in addition to the values that are carried with the passengers, the ship transported diamonds in the safe, the total value of which at the time was estimated at 5 million. pounds sterling. One of these jewels of Dutch firms sent to New York. Titanic was discovered by an American expedition only after a long search, in 1985, it was at a depth of 3800 meters. The first photo of the sunken giant was made by automatic means, it was followed by many others. Through the use of a special robot, scientists were able to “look” at some of the premises of the sunken ship, “to go” in a couple of cabins, Dance Hall and captain’s cabin. Some of the captured personnel were shown on television. The scientists concluded that neither equipment nor lining the vessel, despite the high water pressure and low temperature, or maybe because of them, practically were not damaged. But all agree that the Titanic forever imprisoned in the underwater trap, the fore part of the vessel is bogged down in the mud at 15 m. In addition, as a result of the collapse, the hull was ripped.
Much greater success in “Titanic” to reach the French expedition in 1987 for a short time in a month and a half, the expedition members, some of whom worked on board a small research submarine “Nautilus”, not just failed to do some 10000 pictures, but also took a few videos. Such surveys were made possible by robot “Robin”, which connected with the “Nautilus” 70-meter cable. The work was a set of diverse technology-camera with Flash, powerful spotlights and video cameras. Robot “Robin” was equipped with electric motors that allow it to move under water in any desired direction. While the members of the expedition were made 32 dives “Nautilus”, eventually 150 hours under the water facility. But the most interesting is the fact that the submarine crew through the use of mechanical hands were the first in the history of a unique operation, during which the surface was raised a variety of subjects from on board the Titanic. As a result, the expedition members has ever come to light more than 3600 variety, including a variety of kitchen utensils, unique statuettes, compass, and even bottles of wine and perfectly preserved leather suitcases people aboard the ship. The most valuable copy of this collection-Gladstone, stuffed full of banknotes, gold coins and rare jewels, and a small safe. All objects, which managed to climb from the Titanic, first screened in different countries, and were moved to a special Museum.
The ship “Republic” is often referred to as the brother of the famous Titanic. “Republic” also sank in the Atlantic Ocean, but a little to the South, near the coast of Massachusetts in 1909 as a result of a collision with another ship. This disaster led to the deaths of around 400 people. There is evidence that the ship could be gold coins and valuables worth about 1.5 billion. dollars. However, the expedition, who worked here in 1987 he discovered nothing. According to scientists, the only so-called zone of the territorial waters of the United States sank more than 50 thousand ships.
Let’s return to the topic of our conversation. According to the maps, the Drake Passage is extremely dangerous for navigation, because there all storms, converging at the crossroads of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The most dangerous area of Cape Horn, laced permanent fog and blessed with lots of underwater rocks and unpredictable icebergs. Many Galleons have found shelter in the waters near the island of Cuba and of the Peruvian coast. Most of the vehicles were killed in the port of Callao, former primary Pacific port of the Spaniards during the colonial era. It was from there and exported much of the population selected treasures. The Cape of good hope and much more is essentially the previous title-the Cape of storms, because the storms off the coast of South Africa is a very frequent phenomenon.
Now we turn to the Indian Ocean. Here, near the Maldives, Mauritius and Seychelles, have killed many French, Portuguese and English, and in some cases international ships pirates XVI-XVIII centuries. Most of them are not sunk during emergencies caused by natural factors, but also by numerous sea battles. Among pirates, sailing through the Indian Ocean, are known for their brutality, Robert French submarine Surcouf and Olivier Le Vasseur.
Untold riches of these pirates and their colleagues are not one hundred years are objects of futile searching for treasure seekers. Hunters for gold is particularly attracted to Seychelles, formerly uninhabited at the time, which became a base for pirates. Interest applicants for pirate gold constantly warmed up the legend of the innumerable riches and maps produced by the pirates. One of these cards, ostensibly, before his death threw into the crowd the famous pirate Le Vasseur, Lucy: “someone who will uncover the”.
Over the years, the treasure of the pirate captains, being passed on by word of mouth, have been transformed beyond recognition and overgrown with huge amount of legend. For example, the famous Edward teach, known as Blackbeard, who became the prototype of Captain Flint, made its base one of the islets, located in the “triangle of treasure”. There he hid the stolen treasures of a very original way. Selecting the him a sailor, he carried it with him into the treasure island, away from prying eyes. The sailor was digging a pit, which became his grave-killing Assistant captain buried it with treasure.
Team Pirate said that his companion fell from the cliff. The team was either believe in it or just keep silent. Over time, the island was the second name-dead man’s chest. In 1817 the year Edward Teach died, taking with them information on the places of burial treasures. Many treasure hunters in search of these riches were on the island, but did not find anything.
English geographer Quentin Marla visited the island as a Hunter for the CLADES, and as a researcher. Study of archival material about Pirates of the Caribbean, he noticed the unusual name of the islet and found an interesting story associated with it. As it turned out, the dead man’s Chest island called himself Edward Teach. As a cruel, domineering, not tolerating opposition outrage was its constantly Teach commands of the rose revolution. Brutally supressing the rebellion, the captain landed on the uninhabited island of fifteen survivors of the rioters. Among them was best known for the novel “treasure island” Billy bones, who would take the place of the captain. Thich was sure that rioters on the island will die of hunger and thirst, and “memory” left each of them with a bottle of rum. A month later, back on the island, Thich saw that sailors survived. Trying to survive, they have banded together under the leadership of Billy and showed his full bonus amount of ingenuity. Collecting water, they collected dew on pieces of canvas and diluted with her salty sea water. There they had to shellfish, fish and turtles caught after low tide. Moreover, to raise morale, they even wrote a song called “Billy’s Nightmares bonus amount”. Seeing this, Thich by anger at the mercy of the rebels and returned to the ship. Well, born on the island of dead man’s Chest, the song soon became popular in the booty, and her background was forgotten. We know her only from the novel by r. Stevenson’s “treasure island”. So this is not a figment of imagination, and really the pirate song, based on a historical event.
There is another interesting story related to the treasures belonging to the French pirate Robert , in the 17th century. known as Storm seas. After its glorious “feats”, committed in the waters of the Indian and Atlantic oceans, in the end, the fearsome pirate was captured and placed in the hands of the Royal Court. However, it turned out that his ship La Fudr “did not have a single gold coins, while the French submarine Surcouf has confirmed that all their treasures, she drove along. The judges had not been able to achieve from the pirate more a single word about the treasures, so Storm seas was sentenced to be hanged and took his secret to the grave.
Centuries later, in our days quest solving the mysteries of treasure started by Henri Laudok, treasure hunter from France. Having spent a lot of time searching for treasure, he eventually found the pirate ship, in the graveyard of sunken ships near the island of Barbados. After a detailed inspection of the ship, it turned out that the anchor was cast from precious metal-alloy of silver and gold. The weight of the anchor was 470 kilograms is enormous, even by our times, wealth. So the captain not joking all its treasures were always with him.
Now let’s talk about Australia. Over the past one hundred and fifty years, more than 400 ships sank in bass Strait, between Australia and Tasmania. The largest number of ships was wrecked near King Island, little known for its treacherous reefs. Movement along the East coast of Australia requires a tremendous skill, because these waters are limited by the great barrier reef. Only in waters that bathe the Australian State of Victoria, is located more than 600 “sea of graves”.
“Marked” and the West coast of the continent is in its waters have been found the remains of many ships belonging to the Dutch East India Company. All the ships are loaded with gold, which hoped to raise.
Do not forget about the treacherous seas of the South-East Asia, renowned for their constant violent typhoons. The most dangerous area is the area of the Straits of Malacca. At the bottom of the Strait lie the wrecks of ships, owned by Britain, the Netherlands and Portugal.
Special Malaysian search expedition in 1988 he found at the bottom of the Strait wrecked flagship “Flora de Mara”, owned by the Portuguese Navigator Alfonso de Albuquerque. January 26, 1512 year, after the team ship managed to make fruitful a pirate RAID, during which were looted many of the Malacca Sultanate, the ship was wrecked. Allegedly, on board the ship carrying gold and jewels, some experts could “pull” in excess of three billion dollars. Because of this, the area in which remains of the vessel, is kept in the strictest confidence, in order not to attract seekers of easy gain.
Most of the ships for a long time was not available for seekers of treasure because of how deep they lie on the sea floor. But these days, thanks to the invention of the aqualung and many other much more effective tools for human potential in the field of study of the deep sea have increased significantly. This can be explained by the emergence of a “gold rush” of treasure hunting underwater. It is clear that this work is not their lungs, and not all of the deep ocean are already available to man. In addition, most shipwrecks hidden under many-meter-thick layer of silt and safely cloaked in corals. For these reasons, most often search for the vessel, resting on the seabed, even though its exact coordinates are known, are becoming difficult, virtually impossible.
However, in some countries, and especially in the United States, the search for underwater treasures became an entire industry. Many expeditions, departing on the quest for the treasures of the sunken ships are sponsored by private businessmen or entire companies.
Ogromnymi tirazhami publishes handbooks and manuals that contain recommendations for extraction of money from the depths of the sea. The greatest demand is for maps locating wrecks with brief information about each of them. According to these maps, the most richly on the bottom of the Caribbean pirate treasures.
The most serious is the hype around searching for the treasures of the proverbial Golden Armada “, consisting of 14 large treasure Galleons, taken by the Spaniards of Peru, Mexico and Colombia. Ships were sunk during a severe storm that erupted June 30, 1715 in waters off Kanaverall.
Not haunted treasure seekers and other “Golden fleet”, in 1720. allegedly beaten the British in the waters of the Bay, the Vigo in Northwest Spain. This fact is mentioned in the famous novels of Jules Verne’s “twenty thousand leagues under the sea” and “mysterious island”.
A great number of ships lost in the XV-XVIII century. in the “triangle of treasure” because of the pirate attacks.
In 1815, the independence fighters blew up in the Gulf of Venezuela Cumaná Spanish warship called the San Pedro Alcántara “. It turned out that the ship they drowned along with the value of more than $ 50 million. dollars.
Tobermory bay, hitting the coast of Scotland, in 1588, the crashed ship, those of the biggest vessels “invincible Armada”-Galleon “Florence”. On board the ship had a cargo of 30 million gold ducats.
In 1980, a group of French and American divers on the ocean bottom near the northern coast of the island of Hispaniola was discovered by flagship, which belonged to the most famous pirate of the XVII century. -Henry Morgan. The ship “Oxford” ridiculous died in 1669, the cause of the crash was an explosion in the powder cellar. In the wreckage of one of this ship was found precious metals and articles made of them by several million dollars.
The largest and most luxurious of the Galleons distant times, “San Jose in 1982 was found off the coast of the Colombian port of Cartagena, located in the Caribbean Sea. In 1708, sunk in an attack by bloodthirsty, Charles, the giant, with stuffed full of goods from Indian treasures to this day lies at a depth of more than 200 meters. Presumably it holds is the most striking Treasure planet-116 of hand cheeped steel boxes filled with gold and precious stones. The total weight of more than 600 tons of treasure, and none of the ships had not transported the goods so dear. According to historians, from the wreckage of the vessel can be retrieved treasures worth about 5 billion dollars. The Colombian Government has already begun preparations for the recovery of resting on the seabed treasures thus hoping to improve your financial situation. However, this can be done only if the ship will be indeed “San Jose”. Oh and to the treasures not stolen before its time, a place where lies the remains of the vessel patrol military.
In 1984, in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea, near the port of Alexandria, was discovered by Napoleon’s fleet, flooded by the British. Lying on the bottom of ships-and the Imperial flagship, which, in addition to the money allegedly stolen by the French carried the treasure of the Knights of the order of Malta.
But a far greater number of treasure seekers expectations are not met. For example, recently off the coast of Florida was found iron large chest with the inscription “San Fernando”, under the thick layer of sand. Since “San Fernando” drove to Spain a precious cargo of gold (150 million piasters), it was expected that the contents of the chest will be worth the huge money. But in the end it turned out that in the trunk were needle for repairing sails.
But the most determined and persistent yet succeed. For example, such a lucky 100 legendary American treasure hunter Mel Fisher, who devoted all his life to search for the lost wealth. The story of his findings began with randomness. Spending a vacation in Florida, Fisher during a scuba diving, accidentally discovered on the seabed near the Fort Pierce hoard, consisting of almost 2000 gold coins, including the unique Royal dublony, each of which was sold to collectors and numismatists the 25th. dollars. Since that time and begins its meaningful search engine activity. Previously chickens in California, Fischer moved to Florida and started searching for treasures in the coastal waters. And here he is again incredibly lucky. In 1966, g., Fischer, armed special electronic metal detector, able to distinguish between gold and silver and other metals, have managed to raise the seabed near a small batch of treasures of the Spanish ships that were sunk in 1715, here.
But not these “little things” were the main purpose of an indefatigable Hunter for lost treasures. Its main purpose was Galleon “Saint Margaret” and “Nuestra Señora de Atocha” sunk in 1622 year. Both Galleon carried an incredible treasure, selected by the indigenous inhabitants of the new world.
In order to make his dream come true in life, Fisher began the special search company. He was guided in their search for the ancient Spanish documents, which indicated the approximate place to crash.
Finally, after months of hard and persistent work, summer 1971 Mr. Fischer’s expedition members exploring the region of the Gulf of Mexico, came across almost entirely covered with sand and covered with corals, the remains of old ships. Soon it turned out that the remains belonged to just the search vessels.
It is clear that finding the victims sinking ships-only half of the story. Main thing is to get to their cargo and quite capable of picking it up, not suffering from the teeth of sharks or frequent storms in those edges. For this reason, work on extracting clade continued until the summer of 1985 the goal, that is, as much as 14 years. Over the years, the Fischer expedition divers were able to raise the fantastic treasures from the seabed. The light of God was recovered 150 thousand coins of gold and silver, more than 150 gold and 1000 silver bars, each of which weighed about 40 kg. Fisher’s team also became richer by 3200 emeralds, and a great number of valuable jewelry is only worth about 700 million. dollars.
There is in this story and the tragic page “Atocha Mel Fisher paid the life of his son Dirk, a young daughter-in-law Angel and one of the members of the expedition of Rick cage.
The astounding success of Mel Fisher is an excellent example, is the nagging many less fortunate seekers of treasure. Their excitement is the fact that, according to Fischer, in the same area, where was found the “Atocha” are about 75 Spanish galleons with gold.
Well, the “lucky”, by then aged 67 years of age, to stop treasure hunts, profitable sold his company and started building their own tourist complex in Barbados.
Incredibly lucky and Argentine okeanografu Ruben Collado. Some time ago, examining the long-forgotten archives of the Spanish colonies in Seville, he accidentally discovered a rather interesting list of amazing Spanish treasure Galleon El Pres ando “. The ship, en route from Peru to Spain, was overtaken by pirates in 1792, in the waters of the Republic of Uruguay. The ship’s captain had expected, rounded Cape Horn, deliver to Spain 47 tons of gold coins and ingots, as well as the five foot two gold statue of the Virgin Mary. Also in the holds were 147 tons of silver and a large quantity of pearls and emeralds. Today, all these values would cost about 3 billion dollars. By signing an agreement with the Uruguayan Government, Collado expects to receive half of found treasures. According to the concluded agreement, work on finding and raising finance German, Argentine and Uruguayan businessmen.
Since October 1990, the thirty scuba divers from the team of Ruben Collado, began searching for the legendary ship, which holds crammed with treasures. Expedition members used the most modern radio-electronic equipment for exploration work under water. Meter by meter, they searched coastal waters and investigated the muddy bottom. In the end, El Preciado was found precisely where and mentioned is just 400 m from the main beach in Montevideo, capital of Uruguay. But due to the high complexity required to uplift the treasures of the works, the first of any significant success was achieved only in July 1992, the Then from the hold of the vessel was raised gold coins and bars for a total of 2 million. dollars.
Of retrieving the treasures were carried out under the direct supervision of the warships of the Uruguayan army, and raised from the bottom of the value received for storage in the State Bank of Uruguay. At the end of April 1993, the Bank’s safes have already filed a variety of value worth more than 20 million dollars.
Other seekers of the sunken gold can not boast of such major successes. For example, in 1949, the American McKee grew “only” a million dollars, having found a sunken Spanish galleon off Key Largo reef. Barry Clifford on the 40th year of life near the Florida Beach Cape Cod found use schooner Uajda “-pirate ship ran aground in 1717 and was swallowed by the sands. The ship has already raised a variety of value worth more than 15 million dollars, but the search continues, because, according to the documents, the value of all pirate treasures that were transported by boat, is 380 million. dollars.
In 1979, a group of Americans from the sunken in the 17th century the island of Hispaniola belonged to the Spanish Crown Galleon “Concepción”, lifting several tons of gold jewelry, lots of silver bars and unique porcelain. All extracted treasures are unique and are of immense value. The findings of recent years can be attributed and treasures, raised with the Spanish ship called “Girona” killed on reefs on the West coast of Ireland in October 1588, and values, with the crew of a Dutch sunken vessel “Holland”, which is 2743g. sank near the South-western coast of Great Britain.
In April 1981, the joint Soviet and British scientists from a depth of 260 m. raised treasure ship “Edinburgh”. This English Cruiser fell in battle with the German ships, and, as a result of the battle, sank, having dragged off to the bottom of the 5 tons of gold bullion, for arms purchases to counter with the Nazis. A third found the treasure was returned to the former SOVIET UNION.
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