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Infrared: nature and hasasatha (her feeling) and their practical applications
1. IR Infrared
Infrared is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength between 0.7 and 300 micrometres, which is roughly equivalent to the frequency range between 1 and 430 Tera Hz (10 raised to the exponent 12). Her wave length is longer (and frequency) of the wavelength of visible light, but shorter wavelength (higher frequency) than microwaves microwaves (called Tera Hz).
Bright sunlight provides slightly more than 1 kW per square meter at sea level of radiation, 527 Watts of energy infrared 445 Watts of light visible and 32 watt UV rays.
The near border to near infrared region of the visible light and the remote control close to the electromagnetic waves. Remote thermal impact reduction (such as the influence of the heat of the Sun on the skin and radiation resulting from fires and build upon the idea of scale infrared heat emitted by objects as the human body) while reducing heat near no effect at all and is used in remote controls (in television as an example).
2. irradiated diode (sender) IR infrared
Most remotes use diodat radiate (send) infrared is invisible to the human eye but picks up (Discover) with sensors in the receivers.
When using one channel of the remote control (any one and one compressor key) this function with a reference carrier carrier signal used to start (mug).
In multi-channel systems (multi-function) remote controls are more complex with signals of modified carrier signal modulating signals of different frequencies (called modify frequency FM).
In receivers this signal demodulation is drawn and recommended appropriate filters and routed to different departments to perform multiple functions. Now use digital electronics in the implementation of these steps.
3. draft send infrared INFRARED TRANSMITTER PROJECT
Infrared is used in robotics robotics in communications operations communication and disclosure detection of obstacles (things to move alrobot).
There are many sources of infrared light in the environment around us. The Sun and regular light bulbs and computer screens and even radioactive aldiodat visible light produce varying levels of infrared light.
If the device was simple and depends on the presence or absence of infrared light to communicate or detect obstacles is easy to follow and receive the wrong signals and interferences.
How to get individual reference (unique) Unique Signal
To make the infrared diode blinks blinking, the resulting signal become individually unique so easily differentiate and distinguish them from other light sources.
And even if there is a difference in brightness and angle and distance it depends on flat rate for Flash.
Blink rate must be quick enough to recognize when the reference if you connect ON.
Because of signal detection and report takes a few flashes slow blink rate would take a very long time. But the rate should not be flashing rapidly so we need high cost when using high speed electronics.
Commonly used rate of transmission by infrared is located between 35KHz and 40KHz (i.e., between 35,000 and 40,000 a Flash every second) and this will be implemented in this project.
Power source used is the 9 volt battery so you must use the management service for the effort to get + 5V. Figure shows the circuit of voltage regulator:
Compressor key SW1 is used for tests, when pressed a sender and are separated when edit is plugged again. In the end line can be connected to enable ENABLE_OSC1 to mikrokontrolr or computer port to modify the data to be sent in this case can be dropped for the key SW1 and R7.
Transistor (Q20) and resistance (R20) are supplying infrared diode (LED20) stream is greater than the integrated oscillator circuit (IC1).
V-cycle oscillator using logical NAND gate:
List of components:
2-Input integrated circuit IC1 Quad NAND
Integrated circuit consists of four NAND gates, three of which are converted to inverter inverter gate by plugging her incomes together. While the first gate is for use as a NAND gate “denied”.
And the difference between them and the oscillator Chamber uses reflectors can enable or not enable instantaneous through logic low (end 2 integrated circuit IC1 to ground).
Resistors R3 and R4: are equivalent resistance approximately 150 KΩ-1/8 watt, these resistors are circuit feedback and determine the level of intense effort (C2). These resistors are divided with effort 1 integrated circuit IC1 to ensure that “high levels of effort and low voltage within the work income type CMOS integrated circuit”.
R5: resistance potentiometer 10 KΩ. Is usually set at Center (5 KΩ).
R6: 4.7 KΩ resistance: resistance R5 and R6 total resistance range covers required. these resistors with intense C2 are RC service. And change the value of the constant changes of resistance circuit and then changes frequency.
C2 intensive: condenser 1 nano farad nonpolarized (without polarity) non-polarized. How long it takes this in shipping and in discharge waveform cycle time determines the result.
Condenser C1: 1.5 micro farad capacitor. Used as a capacitor chapter or prevent link decoupling to prevent impact other services integrated circuit IC1 as a result feed from the same source.
Resistance R1 and R2: resistance 1/8 watt-10 KΩ: used as opponents put out so you reduce the capacity used and improve response time and are optional.
R7: resistance 1/8 watt-10 KΩ: it is called Fuchs petrolub AG pull-up and pull resistance which caused the arrival of logical effort NAND gate high unless you press the key SW1 compressor.
SW1 compressor key: when pressed up to the gate NAND logical effort is low because the ground connection. Lead to immediate stop of oscillation. And follow logical values of the gate to another: high – low-high-low output and service leads to separation of the infrared diode. And when you release the key return volatility again.
4. infrared transmitter using 555 timer:
The circle as in Figure:
5. draft detector converged to infrared INFRARED PROXIMITY DETECTOR
Use this type of reagents on various equipment such as open doors automatically in burglar alarms.
The service consists of:
An infrared transmitter and receiver infrared receiver.
The sender section:
Consists of integrated circuit timer 555 and running in “an unstable oscillator” astable as in figure.
Up came out oscillator to infrared diode through resistance R4 which you select stream work lldiod.
This circuit produces output frequency (frequency = 38KHz) and duty cycle (50% duty cycle =) and called lmodiol (reception) and is of type Siemens SFH5110-38.
ON detection module are connected by continuous signal frequency 38 kHz, duty cycle 50% (there is no modiolat detect need burst of payments called modified signal will run later).
Consists of reception and temporary 555 module that works in “oscillator MultiScan balance”
Monostable multivibrator wediod radiant light.
When receiving IR signals into provisional status connection status and remains in this case whenever there is an infrared receiver.
When signal interruption or objection to provisional chapter turns after a few seconds depends on the value of: C6 and R7 (period = 1.1 R7xC6).
R7 = 470 kilo-ohms and C6 = 4.7 uf the provisional time period be 2.5 SEC.
Both sender walmshtkbl components can be installed on a single printout.
Future module must be placed behind the diode transmitter to avoid detection by leaking false IR leakage.
When moving an object near the device actually reflects the infrared emitted by infrared diode. Receiving module has a sensitivity of about 0-60 degrees.
You can use output buffering to be used the way I want. For example, can lead to connect the lighting when approaching persons by running rilay. To turn off the light after a period of time the person has walked away and ended the temporary delay period (temporary delay called chapter).
Detection sensitivity depends on the resistance identification of current existing R4 respectively with some infrared radiation.
Disclosure about 40 cm when using the R4 value resistance 20 ohm can sense objects until
25 cm while 30 ohm value reduce to 22.5 cm.
6. remote device control and add INFRARED REMOTE CONTROL timer TIMER
7. key wetbtil any device through the normal IR remote control TOGGLE SWITCH
8. draft guard for door Door Minder
Use the IR control section and traffic routes or any other area.
When beam is broken the audio alert gives rilay or Visual or both.
This circuit is suitable for entrances to shops (shops) and in garages and parking places.
Infrared beam is very strong and the detection range to greater than 25 yards.
Transmission cycle consists of hesitating to square pulses one works at a frequency of about 250 Hz and the other at frequency of 38 kHz.
Frequency 38 kHz serves as a carrier and is required lmodiol IR receiver. Add (or edit) the frequency 250Hz to produce a signal output batches of frequency 38 kHz and 250 Hz. This reference is used in the operation of the infrared diode.
Using 555 timer oscillators system “multi oscillator without stability”. Integrated circuit IC1 produces 250 Hz frequency is determined by the values of R1 and R2 and C1. integrated circuit IC2 produces 38 KHz frequency is determined by the values of all of R4 and R5 and C3.
Note: D1 and D2 aldiodan help get similar output as follows:
In normal mode to charge the capacitor C3) C1) through resistors R1 (R2, R5 (R4)) while discharged through R2 R5) resistance).
Without aldiodat the waveform abroad has a longer period of high voltage low voltage.
The diode work pass bypasses resistance R2 (R5) when heavy cargo where it is shipped only in R4) resistance R1). This gives equal time to charge and discharge and then symmetric high effort out and low voltage.
Shipping time “high voltage time” gives the relationship:
THIGH = 0.693 x R1 x C1 (or 0.693 x R4 x C3)
Dump time “low voltage time” gives the relationship:
TLOW = 0.693 x R2 x C1 (or 0.693 x R5 x C3)
Output frequency is
The output frequency = 1 / (THIGH + TLOW)
Conducting integrated circuit IC1 came out through the diode D2 and R3 resistance to income “mug” ‘ trigger ‘ for integrated circuit IC2.
When the output IC1 is low this will stop fluctuating IC2 and forced out the IC2 in high status (there is no stream passing infrared diode where party anode and cathode end when high status).
When it came out a high oscillating IC1 IC1 produces frequency 38 KHz which is its influence through the infrared diode.
Diode is fed directly from IC2 out. R6 determine maximum resistance stream passes.
When you use the source feed 12 VDC power about 45 mA.
Decrease the value of R6 resistance increases the current in the diode and then strongly reference taking into account the maximum stream traded in 555 timer is 200 mA and you should refer to the data sheet diode used.
Reception service consists of an infrared receiver unit (called module module) and detected the infrared beam coming from the transmitter. The IR signal is used to maintain an intense charging and which in turn preserves the run rilay.
When the beam is interrupted or disappear intensive dump and alrilay.
The front module consists of: speaker and candidate and circle comprised (adjusted) to detect frequency 38 kHz. Output be party effort low frequency reference discovery 38kHz.
When the beam is alrilay resides in the following way:
Output is the signal module frequency 250 Hz (1 x connecting and separating module a is 250 times per second). This signal goes through the transistor Q1 and C1 D2 waldiod suppressor capacitor C2 C2 are capacitor charge. to complete his cargo during the high parts of the signal. The dump begins during the low parts for reference during alled L1 and R4 and resistance transistor Q2. Although the dump long time but shipment on C2 be intense enough to keep alrilay running.
In the absence of the RADIUS turns out TeamViewer reception to high status. Q1 turns to a chapter and not to charge the capacitor C2 and empties to the point at which the alrilay are separated.
Time delay chapter “turn off” is determined by the time constant of the capacitor C3 R5 and resistance. The values used are given approximately half a second delay.
Condenser C1 blocks DC constant voltage on the transistor Q1 collector intense C2 charge. this happens if beam or the reference frequency 38 KHz “,” continuous without modification (connect then disconnect) in other words, the function of the front module is only responding to the signal frequency of the 38KHz in the form of infusions of pulsed impulses.
Alled L1 gives a Visual statement about an infrared beam and helps when assembled and exactly.
Chamber of alzenar diode Z1 and R6 and intensive C4 resistance to produce consistent effort to feed 5.6 V regulator module.